Botanical NameNardostachys jatamansi DC.
SYNONYMSN. grandiflora DC.
HABITATIt grows in Alpine Himalayas, Kumaon, Sikkim and Bhutan
ENGLISHSpikenard, Musk-root.
AYURVEDICMaansi, Jataamaansi, Bhuutajataa, Tapaswini, Sulomashaa, Jatilaa, Naladaa.
UNANISumbul-e-Hindi, Sambul-ut- Teeb, Naardeen-e-Hindi, Baalchhar.
ACTIONIt is a Tranquilizer, sedative, hypotensive.The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats.Jatamansone was shown to exert tranquilizing effect in mice and monkeys.In rabbits, jatamansone was found to impair biosynthesis of serotonin in the brain leading to a reduction in brain level of 5-hydroxytryptamine.The degradation of serotonin was unaffected. The mode of action of jatamansone was thus in variance with that of reserpine which has direct action on the cell to liberate serotonin.On the other hand, the alcoholic extract of the roots of Indian Nard caused an overall increase in the levels of central monamines,5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and the inhibitory amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in rat brain. In a clinical trial on hyperkinetic children, jatamansone showed significant reduction in hyperactivity and improvement in restlessness and aggressiveness,almost at par with Damphetamine.The volatile oil was found to be less active than quinidine in several tests.It did not counteract digitalis induced ventricular arrhythmias.Jatamansone semicarbazone, a sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antiestrogenic activity.
CONSTITUENTSThe rhizome is rich in sesquiterpenoids. The crude drug gave an oil (yield 2.5% v/w), which contains dnardostachone, valeranone and jatamansone as the major ketonic sesquiterpenes.
APPLICATIONIt is used as a substitute for Valerian. It is used for the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, convulsive affections, palpitation of heart and in intestinal colic. A decoction of powdered roots is prescribed as a home remedy for high blood pressure. It is used in dysmenorrhoea for pain relief and smooth menstrual flow. It is used in hair oil for arresting hair loss and greying of hair. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dry rhizomes in obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, disturbed mental state and insomnia.
DOSAGERoot - 2-3 g powder ; 5-10g for infusion; 50-100ml infusion.